I am working through a distributed installation of the Test Controllers for Visual Studio 2010 and boiled down the configuration gotchas into this nutshell:
(I assume that anyone can run an installation wizard, why walkthrough that..)
1) Registered with a Team Foundation Server Collection
a. The test controller and its associated agents can be managed (configure and monitor) through TFS using the Test Controller Manager in the Lab Center of MTM no additional configuration of the Test Controller is necessary.
2) Not registered with a Team Foundation Server Collection
a. The test controller and its associated agents must be managed using Test in Visual Studio and selecting Manage Test Controllers.
b. This requires additional security configuration on the Test Controller
i. any user that is allowed to execute automated tests (through Visual Studio) or create environments must be added to the security groups of the Test Controller as outlined here: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd648127.aspx#Security
1) When registering a Controller to a TFS server the logged on user who is running the configuration tool must be a member of the TFS Collection Administrators group and a local administrator on the Test Controller machine.